Varicose veins in the legs (vbnk) is classified as a disease that not only causes a lot of discomfort to the patient, but can also spoil the aesthetic appearance of the lower extremities. But that is not all.
Varicose veins disease is very dangerous, and untimely or incorrect treatment leads to the appearance of pathologies leading to lesions of the circulatory system. In most cases, the disease affects people between the ages of 30 and 40, but these are just statistics, everyone has the risk of developing the disease.
Description of the disease
Varicose veins are swelling of the peripheral veins under the skin. In most cases, this occurs on the surface of the muscles, the veins become very bulging and turn blue. At the same time, nodules form on the legs, a violation of the valve apparatus occurs.
The functioning of the blood outflow is impaired. The moment the shutters close, the hardest times can begin. The blood cannot move as it should. Pressure rises in the veins due to blood congestion.
After the pressure in the vessels rises, the blood is pushed out, the excess blood stretches the venous walls, their stretching can gradually begin. The edges of the vessels are in contact with the skin, so they become visible.
This is the reason for the formation of a kind of "web" or mesh of blood vessels. If the vessel is visible through the skin, this indicates that it is weak. The thicker the veins, the more stretched they are, the bluer they will be. Pronounced nodules begin to appear.
This disease has been diagnosed since ancient times. Archaeologists have found records in which there were the first mentions of varicose veins. These were medical laws written in ancient Byzantium.
The witch doctors used special elastic bandages that helped to eliminate the symptoms of the disease. Many scientists tried to find a way to treat and eliminate the problem, among them were Hippocrates, Avicenna and many other people whose names we know.
The disease is very common. According to statistics, it affects every fourth person on our planet. Why does varicose veins appear? The main reasons for the appearance in the poor development of connective tissues.
In order for varicose veins of the lower extremities to begin to spread, a special environment is required.
This is the answer to the question why varicose veins of the lower extremities affects mainly women - the most active hormonal changes take place in the female body.
Take care of your veins. When the disease becomes severe, neglected, it is already difficult to cure it. A timely visit to a phlebologist increases the likelihood that internal varicose veins on the legs will be healed without surgery. Many are interested in whether varicose veins go away. The answer is no. Treatment is essential.
The disease is very insidious, half of the patients do not even imply that they have the first stage of varicose veins. Therefore, you should carefully read the symptoms of the disease and know what to look for in order to avoid complications.
The causes of varicose veins
As we said above, varicose veins of the lower extremities are very common. But there are people who are bypassed by this disease. Why is this happening? Perhaps they followed some preventive measures or did not have a predisposition to the disease? Let's try to figure it out.
In fact, in order to start the violation of the structure of the venous wall and its structure, not so much is needed.
Some individual characteristics of the human body, which were obtained at birth or acquired in the process of life, can easily cause varicose veins.
The following categories of people are at risk:
- Those with a genetic predisposition. But it is worth clarifying that it is impossible to transmit the disease from father to son, but it is possible to transfer such a structure of the vascular system, which involves the expansion of the veins, leading to the onset of vascular disease.
- Women, as this is directly related to their natural destiny.
- People whose professional activity takes place mainly on their feet.
- Pregnant women suffer from varicose veins due to heavy load on the legs.
- Obese people suffer from the disease for the same reasons, for which diet is very often prescribed as therapy.
- People with hormonal disorders.
- Everyone who does not follow the rules of wholesome nutrition, as food can also affect the condition of the walls of blood vessels.
- People with metabolic problems.
Symptoms of the disease
In order to notice the initial stage of the disease in time, you should remember the main signs of varicose veins and take the necessary measures to eliminate them. The symptoms of the disease are as follows:
- Aching pain in the legs appears, especially after walking.
- Burning sensation in the veins.
- Leg severity.
- The appearance of edema, especially in the evening.
- The veins are expanding noticeably.
- Pigmentation. The shins become darker.
- Seals can be felt.
- Trophic ulcers appear.
In addition, there is a list of minor symptoms, among which the following are distinguished:
- In some people, the disease makes itself felt only in the popliteal fossa or on the back of the legs. People with thick skin or abundant vegetation on their legs may have less symptoms.
- Sick veins are easy to palpate.
- If you put the patient on a flat surface and raise his legs up, then the venous spider web will disappear. If the patient stands on his feet, the mesh will appear.
- Cramps sometimes occur.
All symptomatology makes itself felt mainly in the evening. If the disease is not treated in time, the symptoms will become more severe.
Trophic lesions will spread over the entire surface of the legs. The skin becomes dry, turns blue, edema appears. The progression of the disease is accompanied by the following complications:
- Strong seals.
- Skin nutrition problems.
If the disease is accompanied by extraneous symptoms in the form of fever or general weakness, it means that the disease has passed into the acute stage. In rare cases, bleeding occurs due to rupture of nodules.
The international medical community has developed a classification of varicose veins. This classification includes six degrees of severity of the development of the disease. If you do not monitor the condition of your veins, do not take care of them, do not carry out prophylaxis, and expose your legs to unpleasant factors, then you can go through all the stages in a fairly quick way and end up in a hospital bed.
Let's consider each stage of the disease separately:
- Grade 0.It is also called the initial stage of the disease. Zero degree is one of the most mysterious stages: the patient complains about the premises typical for varicose veins, but neither a doctor's examination, nor medical tests and examinations reveal the presence of plaques and problems with the venous walls. Beginning varicose veins require special attention.
- Grade 1.At this stage, vascular plaques or reticulum appear, the symptoms remain the same.
- Degree 2.If the two previous stages are considered ambiguous, and doctors still argue whether they should be attributed to varicose veins, then this stage suggests that you definitely have varicose veins. At this stage, you yourself will notice that the veins in your legs have enlarged, and bluish plaques have appeared on them. Moreover, the veins become more distinct after a walk in high heels or a long stay in an office chair. At this stage, varicose veins of the legs already need to be treated. What does varicose veins look like? It is easy enough to recognize it, the veins fold into a mesh or cobweb and their color turns blue.
- Degree 3.Symptoms remain the same, with daily swelling added, which becomes unbearable in the evening. They may disappear in the morning.
- Degree 4.Trophic changes occur: problems with skin pigmentation begin, it may even turn black. The skin becomes inflamed, small redness appears on them, which over time can grow and become weeping. All these symptoms are prerequisites for the formation of trophic ulcers.
- Degree 5.Includes the totality of all the above symptoms, to which a trophic type ulcer is added.
- Degree 6.The ulcer becomes active, active and non-healing. Immediate surgical intervention is required as the ulcer is life threatening.
How the diagnostics work
When a disease is just beginning to develop, it manifests itself very imperceptibly without actually letting anyone know about itself. People think that discomfort in the lower extremities is a consequence of fatigue after a long day at work or attributed to age.
Referral to a specialist often occurs when the disease begins to manifest itself in an obvious way, usually at the third stage and higher.
If a patient can see palpable blue veins with swelling, then the diagnosis will not be difficult. However, doctors are not limited to visual examination and use additional research methods:
- Ultrasound flowmetry. The examination allows you to determine the speed at which blood moves through the veins and their filling.
- Perthes Samples - are assigned at the initial stages of varicose veins development. This technique is carried out by careful examination with a change in the position of the patient. Careful palpation is performed.
- Phlebomanometry - determines intravenous pressure.
- Vein screening is a procedure that determines the condition and elasticity of the venous walls.
There are many methods. Your doctor will not prescribe all of your research options. In most cases, the definition of the disease occurs after one or two events. The diagnosis is made, its degree is determined and treatment begins.
Modern medicine has made great strides in the treatment of varicose veins. In fact, all activities are carried out on an outpatient basis. Hospitalization in a hospital is required in exceptional or neglected cases.
There are a number of ways to treat varicose veins:
- laser coagulation;
- radiofrequency ablation;
- surgical intervention.
Let's take a closer look at some of them.
This method removes painful veins without surgery. For this, a special liquid agent is injected into the venous vessel, which has an adhesive effect. Over time, fluid is excreted from the body. Gradually, blood begins not to get into this area, it is evenly distributed over healthy parts.
This technique has been around for a long time. Currently, doctors have achieved the maximum safety of this procedure. The duration of treatment depends on the degree of development of the disease.
After the fluid has been injected, an elastic bandage is wrapped around the patient's leg. The procedure improves blood circulation processes, relieves swelling. Scleotherapy well eliminates pain in the legs with varicose veins.
The effectiveness of the treatment is 75%. The category of people who make up the remaining 25% includes people with advanced diseases.
Coagulation - laser treatment of varicose veins, which clogs the lumen of the veins. The technique is considered the newest and was invented by specialists from Germany.
With the help of a laser, a certain "adhesion" of the veins occurs. The laser is inserted under the skin through a small puncture. No incisions are made. Vienna ceases to participate in blood circulation, gradually turning into a connective epithelium.
This technique was developed quite recently. The aim of this therapy is the most effective and perfect disposal of varicose plaques.
The essence of the procedure is as follows:
- A catheter with radio frequency is inserted into a small puncture.
- It clogs a vein with radio waves.
- The catheter has sensors that diagnose the state of the effect of temperature on the walls of the veins.
Radical therapy techniques
If a patient has an abundant presence of a trophic type ulcer, eczema and other violations of the integrity of the skin, then surgical intervention is indispensable.
Most medical centers are equipped with vascular microsurgery equipment. Such equipment allows removing diseased veins without injury. After such a procedure, there are no traces of scars and scars. The procedure does not require a long hospital stay; in many cases, the patient goes home within an hour after the procedure.
Don't be afraid to remove veins. Doctors are convinced that unhealthy veins are very harmful to health, and all pests must be promptly eliminated.
If, after a long day of work or after walking, you feel discomfort in the lower extremities, heaviness and other symptoms. When you go to bed or rest, place your feet on a pillow or other support.
If your work involves sitting for a long time or you are constantly in an upright position, then try to regularly change the position of your legs. If you work while standing, then step from one foot to the other, stomp in one place. If you are sitting in an office chair, then twist with your feet.
After bathing, rinse your feet with ice water.
Go in for sports, help to fight varicose veins:
Varicose veins are considered a serious and serious disease. Symptoms of the disease are observed in every second inhabitant of the planet, varicose veins itself affects every fifth person. If you do not start timely immediate treatment of the disease, you can become disabled, since it will be virtually impossible to walk.
It is important to impeccably follow all doctor's prescriptions and perform all preventive exercises. Only complex surgical treatment will help you cope with the disease and avoid its occurrence in the future. Now you know what varicose veins is and what to do with varicose veins. Take care of yourself!